Delegates in Security Council Call for Using United Nations Assessed Contributions as Means to Strengthen Peacekeeping Operations in Africa

Secretary-General, Peace and Security Commissioner Highlight Significant Aspects of Partnership between United Nations, African Union

Strengthening cooperation with the African Union, including by providing it with adequate financing, is key to strengthening peacekeeping operations on the continent, speakers told the Security Council as it held a day-long open debate on that subject.

Our partnership with the African Union and African Member States is vital to our collective efforts for peace, and we must continue working to strengthen it, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said in remarks before the meeting. SmaA�l Chergui, the African Union’s Commissioner for Peace and Security, also briefed members.

The Secretary-General noted the close collaboration between the United Nations and the Union across the continent, from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Mali, Central African Republic and Darfur, to supporting political processes, national dialogues and regional mediation efforts, easing tensions and paving the way for peace agreements and elections. Such cooperation becomes increasingly important as peacekeeping encompasses complex operations with multidimensional mandates in extremely dangerous environments, he said.

He went on to emphasize the need to build the capacity to enable Africa to play its full role in that context, and to improve funding methods. It is essential that African-led peace operations acting under the Security Council’s authority are provided with strong mandates and predictable, sustainable and flexible finance, including through UN assessed contributions where appropriate, he stated.

Mr. Chergui, speaking via video-teleconference from Addis Ababa, said the African Union has spared no effort in expediting priorities that help to strengthen its partnership with United Nations peacekeeping, including the launch of the revitalized Peace Fund on 17 November 2018, noting that African Union member States have contributed $60 million. Significant progress has also been made in enhancing the human rights compliance framework for African Union peace support operations, as well as in joint analysis, planning and cooperation with the United Nations, he added. To strengthen the partnership, the Security Council should adopt a draft resolution � to be tabled in the coming weeks � on the need for the African Union to gain access to United Nations assessed contributions for operations authorized by the United Nations, on a case-by-case basis. That text, when adopted, should not be overloaded with conditionalities that would delay progress in the management of peace and security in Africa, he emphasized.

Delegates then took the floor to express strong support for building African peacekeeping capacity on the continent and for strengthening its partnership with the United Nations. Like many other speakers, Botswana’s representative noted the complexity of festering as well as active conflicts with delicate cross-border dimensions, saying the continent finds itself facing the simultaneous tasks of tackling conflict and implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Regional efforts can better take the local context and regional dynamics into account in facing that inter-related challenge, he added.

On the question of funding, CAte d’Ivoire’s representative called � in a statement he read out on behalf of the other two African Council members, Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea � for the adoption of a resolution that would provide a framework for predictable and dependable funding, including from United Nations assessed contributions. In that context, they noted the progress made on institutional reform of the African Union in favour of financial autonomy, greater accountability and effectiveness.

While many African delegations expressed strong support for the adoption of such a resolution, and for tabling it during Equatorial Guinea’s December Presidency, others stressed that they will only support such an action if the necessary criteria are truly met and if it is based on the primacy of the Security Council in international peace and security. France’s representative said stronger funding commitments will deepen international solidarity.

Other speakers were more reluctant to endorse the African Union’s access to assessed contributions at the present time. In that vein, the representative of the United States emphasized that a rushed process which changes peacekeeping permanently is not the answer to the formidable challenges confronting peace and security in Africa.

Belgium’s representative stressed the need for equally rigorous standards for all peacekeeping operations, particularly in such areas as civilian protection and human rights. In addition, he said African Union-led missions must be able to deploy rapidly, while pointing out that the Security Council is not the ideal forum in which to discuss funding modalities.

The Russian Federation’s representative emphasized his country’s consistent support for African ownership of efforts to meet challenges on the continent under the principle of African problems, African solutions. He called for further consideration of funding modalities, while respecting the basic principles of peacekeeping. The priority is enabling African efforts without imposing policies prompted by the self-interest of some donor countries, which often result in counter-productive sanctions and armed interventions, he said.

With most speakers pledging their commitment to considering more dependable support for African peacekeeping, however, an observer for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) welcomed the African Union’s endeavours to foster greater respect for international humanitarian law and international human rights law, describing the Committee’s own efforts to support the bloc.

At the meeting’s outset, the Secretary-General requested that delegates observe a moment of silence in honour of eight peacekeepers killed last week in the Central African Republic and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They were nationals of Malawi and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Also speaking today were representatives of China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom, Kuwait, Bolivia, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Peru, India, Switzerland, Japan, Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Italy, Iran, Argentina, Namibia, Norway, Philippines, Germany, Estonia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Guatemala, Venezuela (on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement), Indonesia, Israel, Rwanda, Morocco, Romania, Canada, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Djibouti, Republic of Korea, Senegal, Portugal, Algeria, Kenya, Nigeria, Turkey and Bangladesh.

An observer for the European Union delegation and the Permanent Observer for the Holy See also delivered statements.

The meeting began at 10:05 a.m. and ended at 4:20 p.m.

Briefings

ANTA�NIO GUTERRES, Secretary-General of the United Nations, described peacekeeping as a remarkable exercise in global solidarity. Paying tribute to all Blue Helmets, he requested that the meeting observe a moment of silence in honour of eight peacekeepers from African countries killed last week in the performance of their duties. He also thanked the Council presidency for China’s contributions and welcomed its pledge to establish a peacekeeping standby force. Pointing out that the African continent hosts 7 of the 14 United Nations peacekeeping missions and is home to more than 80 per cent of its peacekeepers, he said African countries provide nearly half of the Blue Helmets deployed around the world, including almost two thirds of all women peacekeepers and the majority of police officers. Recalling the successful completion of mandates in CAte d’Ivoire and Liberia, he stated: From the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to Mali, to the Central African Republic and Darfur, the African Union and United Nations have worked closely to support political processes, national dialogues and regional mediation efforts, easing tensions and paving the way for peace agreements and elections. Recently in South Sudan, he recalled, the two organizations worked together in support of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to ensure the signing of the Revitalized Agreement in that country. Over the last decade, the African Union peace and security architecture has been strengthened considerably and a key pillar, the African Union Peace Fund, is being operationalized, he noted.

However, peacekeeping in Africa continues to present great challenges, he acknowledged. United Nations missions are carrying out complex operations under multidimensional mandates and in extremely dangerous environments. Transnational crime, non-State armed groups and terrorist groups pose serious challenges, sometimes directly targeting peacekeepers. In that context, our partnership with the African Union and African Member States is vital to our collective efforts for peace, and we must continue working to strengthen it, he emphasized. As examples of high-level cooperation, he cited the signing of the Joint United Nations-African Union Frameworks on Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security and on Implementation of the African Agenda 2063, and the global 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to promote coherence, efficiency and effectiveness. Joint missions to the continent include the recent one focusing on the role of South Sudan’s women in building peace. In addition, he said, 42 African Governments are among the 150 to have signed the Declaration of Shared Commitments in support of his Action for Peacekeeping initiative for more effective peacekeeping and greater support for political solutions, security of peacekeepers and adequate equipment and training. Its ongoing, proactive implementation requires partnerships with troop-contributing countries, regional organizations and host Governments, he added. Outlining goals for more integrated analyses and stronger national and regional strategies, he said they include closer integration of conflict-prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts that place sustainable development at their core.

Steps are also being taken to increase the numbers of women at all levels of peacekeeping and to tackle sexual exploitation and abuse, he continued. African peace operations, including those mandated by the African Union, have played a key role in maintaining peace and security on the continent, he added, emphasizing: They deserve predictable systems of support. Joint planning for mandating African peace support operations and for legal and human rights compliance frameworks are critical parts of that effort, he said, noting the growing number of situations requiring peace-enforcement and counter-terrorism operations that can only be carried out by such partners as the African Union and various subregional configurations. He went on to stress: It is essential that African-led peace operations acting under the Security Council’s authority are provided with strong mandates and predictable, sustainable and flexible finance, including through UN-assessed contributions where appropriate. In that regard, he called for greater support to enable the Joint Force for the Group of Five for the Sahel (G5 Sahel) to combat terrorism and organized crime. While expressing gratitude to the European Union and other donors, he said that up to half the pledges have not been earmarked, let alone disbursed. In our interconnected age, security challenges on one continent present a risk to the whole world, he said, underlining that the factors that drive conflict in Africa � including poverty, youth unemployment, climate change, competition for resources and transnational crime � threaten global security. For that reason, improving the impact and effectiveness of peacekeeping in Africa is a collective responsibility, he said.

SMAA�L CHEGUI, Commissioner for Peace and Security of the African Union, said peacekeeping reform is of shared and critical interest to the United Nations and regional organizations. The 2017 high-level Security Council debate on peacekeeping reform and the resultant resolution (document S/RES/2378 (2017)) is an important locus on which to continue monitoring efforts towards enhanced cooperation and peacekeeping reform. He said that since his briefing to the Council in 2017, the African Union has spared no effort in expediting priorities for strengthening the partnership. It continues to facilitate key processes of the revitalized Peace Fund launched on 17 November 2018, on the sidelines of the eleventh Extraordinary Assembly on African Union Reform. The launch was preceded by the inaugural meeting of the Board of Trustees, he said, emphasizing that the latter will ensure effective management and accountability on the Peace Fund’s part. Member States of the African Union have contributed $60 million to the Fund, he added.

The African Union Commission has recorded significant progress in enhancing the existing human rights compliance framework for its peace support operations, he continued. Ensuring compliance and accountability to international humanitarian law and international human rights law is not new to the African Union, having always been a part of its mission planning and management processes. Recalling that the African Union and the United Nations have jointly undertaken four joint reviews of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) since 2013, he said they have allowed for greater joint analysis, planning and cooperation between the two secretariats.

Urging the Council to further enhance its strategic engagement with the African Union Peace and Security Council, he said it should seize the opportunity to adopt the draft resolution to be tabled in the coming weeks on the need for the African Union to have access to United Nations assessed contributions for Council-authorized operations on a case-by-case basis. The African Union understands the aims and objective of the draft resolutions currently being negotiated by Council members, he said, adding that, when adopted, it should indicate that the Council agrees, in principle, to the use of United Nations assessed contributions for African Union peace support operations authorized by the Council, on a case-by-case basis. He emphasized that the draft resolution, when adopted, should not be overloaded with conditionalities that would delay progress in the management of peace and security in Africa.

Statements

MA ZHAOXU (China), Council President for November, spoke in his national capacity, affirming that African efforts are critical to building peace on the continent. Noting the progress made in the past few years in that regard, as well as the closer cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, he said that strengthening peacekeeping in Africa is indeed a shared responsibility and capacity on the continent must be built. In that regard, basic Charter and peacekeeping principles must be respected, including the sovereignty of the countries concerned. Stressing the need to enable African countries to deal with African issues in an African manner, he expressed support for sustainable and predictable funding for African Union peace operations under their own leadership, as well as for rapid-reaction and early-warning mechanisms. African troop contributors must also have support in strengthening their capabilities, he said, underlining his country’s extensive contributions to peacekeeping in Africa, including the China-Africa security fund to assist African Union peacekeeping missions. He called upon other Council members to join hands with regional partners for closer collaboration.

KACOU HOUADJA LA�ON ADOM (CAte d’Ivoire), speaking also for Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea, noted the progress made in institutional reform of the African Union in favour of financial autonomy, greater accountability and effectiveness. Affirming the strengthening of cooperation with both China and the United Nations in that effort, he underlined the African Union’s determination to lead in peace and security efforts on the continent through comparative advantages as well as continental and regional arrangements. The peace and security architecture must be able to adapt to developing challenges, he said. While welcoming the new strategic framework between the African Union and the United Nations, he cautioned, however, that the effectiveness of African peacekeeping efforts still depends on unpredictable resources. There is need for mechanisms to remedy that situation, as stated in previous Council resolutions calling for the provision of assessed contributions for that purpose, on a case-by-case basis and under arrangements that ensure accountability, he said, emphasizing that priority has been accorded to progress on that front. He urged engagement by all stakeholders on that issue, leading to the adoption in December of a draft resolution that will provide a framework for predictable and dependable funding, including from assessed contributions. A roadmap will be presented shortly, he added, stressing that the African commitment to taking ownership of its own destiny has never been as strong as it is now

KAIRAT UMAROV (Kazakhstan), emphasizing the African Union’s crucial partnership with the United Nations, said the peace operations led by the regional bloc are absolute essentials for the Council’s ability to maintain global peace and security � especially in light of the limitations of the Organization’s peacekeeping doctrine in such areas as peace enforcement and counter-terrorism. Welcoming the two organizations’ Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security, as well as the Joint Framework for Sustainable Development, he said that improving peace and security in Africa will mean capitalizing on those frameworks to the fullest extent, including joint field visits, joint briefings and improved modalities for joint technical analysis, planning, assessment and reporting. Also underlining the important role of subregional mechanisms, he voiced Kazakhstan’s view that funding should be provided on a case-by-case basis � in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter � pointing out that in several resolutions the Council has expressed its readiness to consider joint financing of missions through United Nations assessed contributions.

JONATHAN GUY ALLEN (United Kingdom) said peacekeeping remains one of the Organization’s most effective tools for the maintenance of peace and security. With that in mind, peacekeepers should be properly equipped to meet the challenges they will face so that they are able to carry out their mandates and ensure their own safety. Where units perform poorly, they put themselves as well as the civilians they are mandated to protect at risk, he said, emphasizing that missions must be robustly and fairly assessed, using accurate data collected from the field. Welcoming the Secretariat’s efforts in that regard, he emphasized that implementation of the Secretary-General’s zero-tolerance policy on sexual abuse must continue. On collaboration, he said that good use must be made of individual strengths so that collective efforts are greater than the sum of their parts.

MANSOUR AYYAD SH. A. ALOTAIBI (Kuwait), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that chapter 8 of the Charter of the United Nations, on partnership, provides an umbrella for regional cooperation. The noble objective of silencing guns remains possible through concerted efforts, he added. AMISOM and the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) represent a model that puts the African State at the forefront of defending their continent’s security and building the capacities of host countries, especially since African troop-contributing countries have the advantage of rapid response, he said. Regarding the official launch of the Peace Fund, he said that historic point represents a step towards promoting African solutions to African problems. He expressed hope that predictable funding will be secured for peacekeeping operations led by the African Union and mandated by the Security Council.

SACHA SERGIO LLORENTTY SOLA�Z (Bolivia), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, reaffirmed the importance of improving cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations, highlighting the international community’s responsibility to facilitate that relationship. He welcomed the efforts undertaken with regard to the silencing the guns initiative and the signing of the memorandum of understanding between the African Union and the United Nations, saying they will improve the continent’s ability to counter terrorism, which hampers peacebuilding and development. Describing the deployment of joint hybrid operations as a key element in the quest for peace, security and resilience, he said they are a useful tool for countering terrorism and transnational crime.

KAREL JAN GUSTAAF VAN OOSTEROM (Netherlands) said that a strong partnership between the African Union and the United Nations enables the international community to respond swiftly and decisively in addressing challenges to peace and security in Africa, adding that the bloc’s ability to act as a first responder and move in quickly should be facilitated as much as possible. The strength of peace support operations is so very dependent on troop-contributing countries, he noted, also highlighting the importance of predictable and sustainable financing for African Union peace operations. We all need to invest in the African Union’s capacities, he emphasized, encouraging the latter to continue drafting and implementing compliance frameworks, in collaboration with the United Nations.

JOANNA WRONECKA (Poland) described the African Union as the Organization’s most important strategic partner in the realm of peace and security, development and human rights. Welcoming the development of the framework for compliance with international humanitarian law and international human rights law in the conduct and discipline of African Union peace support operations, she emphasized the importance of enhancing inter-mission cooperation, noting also the need to transfer best practices from Africa to other regions.

FRANCOIS DELATTRE (France) endorsed the statement made on behalf of the three African Council members and pledged his country’s continuing support for strengthening the relationship between the United Nations and the African Union. The partnership can now be seen daily on the ground, including in the Central African Republic and elsewhere. He cautioned, however, against undermining the collective framework for financing and other support. Among the advantages of African peace operations is their adaptability to threats, clear mandates and lower costs in relation to United Nations operations, he noted. Welcoming the African Union’s pursuit of a far-reaching resolution by the end of 2018, he noted that the text entails increasing the bloc’s Peace Fund to 20 per cent of costs, with 75 per cent provided by the United Nations, including from assessed contributions. He stressed that any framework of cooperation should underline the primacy of the Security Council and the need for clear mandates for operations. In that context, France supports the mobilization of assessed contributions to support operations mandated by the Council and the African Union, he said, adding that such a framework will not only build African peacekeeping capacity, but also ensure international solidarity. African countries can count on the resolute support of France in that regard, he added, paying tribute to peacekeepers on the continent.

JONATHAN R. COHEN (United States), affirming the importance of the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations, while also paying tribute to African troop contributors, emphasized the importance of carefully considering how the relationship should be strengthened. On the matter of assessed contributions, in particular, one must ask how it will affect peace on the ground and human rights in Africa, he said, recalling that previous resolutions set out specific conditions for considering the use of assessed contributions, including 20 per cent African funding for operations, high performance standards and guarantees of respect for human rights. While much progress has been made in those areas, more is necessary, he said, stressing that it is premature to move to the next step. Full political and legislative support from capitals is also needed in order to make significant changes, he added, noting that the United States Congress will not be able to meet on such matters until 2019. While calling for further consideration of the issue, he underlined that the United States will remain the top contributor to peacekeeping support and will continue its extensive training of contingents in Africa. However, a rushed process that changes peacekeeping permanently is not the answer to the formidable challenges to peace and security on the continent, he reiterated.

DMITRY A. POLYANSKIY (Russian Federation) said his country consistently supports African ownership of efforts to meet challenges on the continent, under the principle of African problems, African solutions. Emphasizing that blanket solutions must not be imposed on African countries, he welcomed the development of African mechanisms in peace and security, such as the permanent standing force. Agreeing that it is important to enhance the adequacy and predictability of funding, he called for further consideration of that matter, while stressing the importance of maintaining the standing orders of peacekeeping, as well as respecting its basic principles. He underlined as well the need for Africans to be able to formulate achievable mandates for their operations. Citing Council-mandated arms embargoes that weakened possibilities for settling conflicts in some African situations, he blamed a focus on narrow interests for counter-productive measures, as in Libya, where Western countries, acting with force of arms, bypassed the African plan for a political solution, thereby bringing on the destabilization of the whole region. The Russian Federation supports all actors for peace in Africa that act in good faith and without narrow agendas, he emphasized. Citing the many instances of cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, he said no mission should have a limitless date, adding that there should be no obstacles to drawdown efforts, as in the case of MONUSCO. He outlines his country’s multiform support for African contributions to peacekeeping, including its training of contingents in Russian institutions.

IRINA SCHOULGIN NYONI (Sweden), associating herself with the European Union, said that her country has long supported an enhanced the strategic partnership between the United Nations and Africa’s regional and subregional organizations. Highlighting last week’s briefing on the joint visit to South Sudan by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and the African Union Commissioner for Peace and Security as first-hand evidence of that cooperation, she noted also the launch of the African Union Peace Fund last week, describing it as an important step towards enhancing self-reliance in financing the African Union’s activities. He stressed that it is also vital to go beyond military responses and address the root causes of conflicts, build transparent and inclusive institutions, and scale up efforts to address illicit financial flows.

PAUL DUCLOS (Peru) said African peace support operations can benefit from the experience of peacekeeping operations deployed under Security Council mandates. Encouraging the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to continue enhancing cooperation with the African Union, he said the United Nations should support the efforts of African States to ensure flexible and sustainable financing for peace support operations, he noted, adding that adequate financing of operations is crucial if they are to attain their targets and maintain reserve forces capable of deploying rapidly when faced with emerging threats. He closed by paying tribute to the Blue Helmets who recently lost their lives.

SYED AKBARUDDIN (India) noted that peacekeeping mandates must be prioritized to help allocate the meagre resources available. Vast environments are being covered by peace missions, including in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where approximately 3,000 troops are responsible for 11 million people in the central sector. The size and scale of United Nations deployment are insufficient, setting us all up for a tragedy, he warned. Since Africa contributes the largest number of personnel to peacekeeping operations, the United Nations must consider how to support its African partners through mechanisms of soft coordination.

JARG LAUBER (Switzerland), welcoming the various framework agreements between the African Union and the United Nations, underscored that it is necessary to understand and transform the causes of violence in order to offer real alternatives for peace. Switzerland has been pursuing an agenda to prevent violence and consolidate peace with partners on the African continent. For nearly a decade, her country has been providing support for centres of excellence which provide training and expertise to strengthen the capacities of African peace operations. Securing sustainable and predictable funding for African peace operations is strategically important, he emphasized, also highlighting the importance of respect for human rights and international humanitarian law as a frame of reference for that cooperation.

KORO BESSHO (Japan) said the United Nations must work with African partners to improve the quality of peacekeeping. Noting that 13 of the top 20 troop- and police-contributing countries were in Africa, he emphasized the importance of capacity-building for African nations. Japan has supported African peacekeeping efforts over the years, including partnerships with peacekeeping institutes in 13 countries on the continent. Given the wide range of security challenges in Africa, empowering its institutions and its people will be a real driving force for peace and security, he stated.

MAURO VIEIRA (Brazil) noted that his country is currently contributing to six peacekeeping missions in Africa and is engaged in the pre-deployment training of African military engineers through triangular partnership projects. In addition, the Brazilian Peace Operations Joint Training Center promotes the exchange of best practices. Because peacekeeping is meant to be a temporary, but decisive endeavour, he noted that a limited set of core political goals should guide every mission’s task on the continent. Moreover, the African perspective should be considered in the decision-making process, especially in terms of mandates. Only Security Council reform which expands both permanent and non-permanent membership categories can adequately address the issue of representation for African and developing countries. As well, supporting the primacy of African politics in preventing and peacefully solving the continent’s problems should be part and parcel of a comprehensive strategy to enhance African capabilities in peace and security.

MOHAMED FATHI AHMED EDREES (Egypt), pointing to unprecedented challenges of missions in Africa as well as the prospect of reduced funding, pledged his country’s commitment to strengthen peacekeeping on the continent. Egypt has contributed more than 30,000 troops and police to United Nations operations since 1960. However, there is a need for comprehensive design and review, as well as a viable exit strategy for every mission. Priority must be given to political solutions to conflicts. More efforts and resources must be invested in building peace according to the priorities of the host States and the specificities of every conflict. Respecting the sovereignty and wishes of the host countries and avoiding force except for self-defence is paramount. Mandates must be realistic and adapt to realities on the ground. In addition, the safety of peacekeepers must be a priority. National ownership of all processes must be prioritized and coordination with the African Union must be strengthened. Egypt, among other activities, participated in the recent regional conference in Cairo, building on the Declaration of Shared Commitments on United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.

GERALDINE BYRNE NASON (Ireland) recalled that Ireland’s first deployment of an armed peacekeeping contingent was in Congo in 1960. Nearly 60 years later, it is still actively contributing to United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa and the Middle East. Full use should be made of the opportunities of the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. There should also be greater communication between the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council. Emphasis must be placed on operational cooperation that makes a real difference, such as joint analysis, planning and reviews. Financing options must be explored both within and outside of the United Nations budget. It is clear that the current funding structure for African-led peace operations is unsustainable. The ongoing question of the role of the United Nations regular budget is an important one, but should not detract from the question of how the international community could best support African States to finance their initiatives for peace and security on the continent.

MARIA ANGELA ZAPPIA (Italy), associating herself with the European Union, said that the African Union is an active global player in peace and security and is also enhancing its own instruments in order to respond effectively to threats and crises affecting the continent. Thanks to its carabinieri and defence forces, from Somalia to the Sahel, Italy is sparing no effort to build capacity across the board, including border security, election security and justice and correction practices, as well as the fight against organized crime and trafficking. In 2018, her Government committed additional resources to specific training and capacity-building programmes. The African Union-led peace operations have comparative advantages in terms of flexibility and rapid deployment. Still, their main challenge is the lack of sustainable and predictable funding. She noted she remains in favour of using United Nations assessed contributions for African-led peace operations, provided that appropriate standards in terms of troop quality, training, equipment, financial transparency and human rights compliance are met.

ESHAGH AL HABIB (Iran), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that the United Nations and the international community have a responsibility to assist African States in strengthening their capacity to maintain peace and security. At the same time, the fact that, out of 14 total, the 5 largest United Nations peacekeeping missions are deployed in Africa proves the importance that the Organization attaches to preserving and promoting peace on the continent. The United Nations also has a responsibility to make use of the capacities of African countries. To promote peace and security, African Union-led peace operations authorized by the Security Council should be promoted. All such peacekeeping operations should be based on the respect of the basic principles of peacekeeping, such as the consent of parties, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.

MARTA�N GARCA�A MORITA�N (Argentina), reaffirming his country’s commitment to peacekeeping operations, said that such operations must be part of a holistic strategy for peace through sustainable development and respect for human rights. Citing the contributions made by Argentina to operations, he called for more nimble missions with advanced planning and sufficient resources. For the objective of building sustainable peace, partnership with regional organizations is critical. All stakeholders should renew their commitment to peacekeeping; that is why Argentina signed on to the Declaration on Action for Peacekeeping. Dialogue and mediation capabilities of regional organizations are particularly important in bolstering the strategic partnership of the African Union and the United Nations. Condemning all attacks against peacekeeping tasks, he called for those perpetrators to be held to account and paid tribute to all those who sacrificed for a fairer and peaceful world.

NEVILLE MELVIN GERTZE (Namibia), highlighting the current seven peacekeeping mission in Africa, said strengthening the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union is key to strengthening operations. The capacity of these two organizations to cooperate on matters of peace and security has been amply demonstrated, he said, pointing to their successful collaboration in Somalia and Darfur. Adding that African States have contributed their full share to peacekeeping, he said due recognition should be given to peacekeepers who have valiantly stood in harm’s way and laid down their lives for peace. The African Union’s decision to take financial responsibility for 25 per cent of its peace activities bears further witness to its unflinching commitment to secure peace on the continent.

TORE HATTREM (Norway), also speaking for Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden, said that the Nordic countries have long supported peace and security in Africa, most recently demonstrated vis-a-vis the joint force of the G-5 Sahel. However, because the situation on the ground remains challenging, the Secretary-General’s Action for Peace initiative will benefit all peace operations on the continent. Peace operations should always support a political process � as demonstrated by the unified support for the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan. In addition, more must be done to increase the number of women peacekeepers and to address sexual and gender-based violence in conflicts across Africa. Underscoring that the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union must be strengthened, including in financing, he voiced support for a system that combines both assessed contributions from the United Nations and African Union funding, based on transparent reporting and in full compliance with United Nations standards on human rights and other critical matters.

ARIEL RODELAS PENARANDA (Philippines) said strengthening peacekeeping operations on the continent could be accomplished through capacity-building, training or peer-learning exercises, along with exchanging best practices. Voluntary contributions are also very important, he noted, reporting that the Philippines is a contributor to the Peacebuilding Fund. His country’s deployment policy is guided by the Philippine National Council for United Nations Peace Operations, which deploys military, police and civilian personnel to missions in Darfur, Central African Republic, Somalia and South Sudan. Moreover, his country promotes women’s contributions to peace negotiations and peacebuilding, with 17 female personnel from the Philippines serving in peacekeeping and special political missions in African States.

MATHIAS LICHARZ (Germany), associating himself with the European Union, said Germany was among the first countries to endorse the Declaration of Shared Commitments on Peacekeeping Operations put forth by the Secretary-General in August. It has also stepped up its contribution to crisis prevention and peacekeeping efforts by providing training and specialized equipment to many African troop- and police-contributing countries. Such efforts include mobile training teams for pre-deployment; improvised explosive device training to the countries contributing troops to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA); and training to increase the command capacities of high-risk missions across Africa. However, there remains a need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led operations authorized by the Council. A mechanism should be considered through which those missions could be financed through United Nations assessed contributions, on a case-by-case basis.

SVEN JARGENSON (Estonia), voicing support for more realistic, robust and tailored mandates for peacekeeping operations, said it is important to enable closer coordination among United Nations mission commanders to help set up achievable tasks for the successful fulfilment of mandates. As well, the African Union’s Agenda 2063 underscores that forging synergies between governance and peace and security is crucial for addressing conflicts in a holistic manner. He welcomed such efforts regarding concrete structural conflict prevention initiatives, early warning, mediation and preventive diplomacy. No one can solve the conflicts of the world alone, he stressed. Forging synergies between partners and making the most of what the multilateral system has to offer will continue to bring the international community closer to lasting peace and economic well-being.

JUAN SANDOVAL MENDIOLEA (Mexico), expressing gratitude to the men and women who sacrificed themselves for the cause of peace, said that the international community is moving towards a new paradigm in which peace and security are inextricably linked with sustainable development. On the African continent, as in the rest of the world, inclusion and the establishment of a healthy social fabric are of vital importance for conflict prevention. Women and young people must be adequately represented in the solutions offered by the United Nations, he said, also stressing the importance of responding to warning signs. Peacekeeping reforms should increase effectiveness and accountability, he noted, adding that Mexico is one of the 150 countries who endorsed the Declaration of Shared Commitments.

GUSTAVO MARTIN PRADA, the European Union, stressing the need to ensure financial resources for peacekeeping operations mandated by the Union and authorized by the Council, voiced support for the Joint Framework. He also welcomed the recognition of African responsibility for the management of security challenges on the continent, noting the prime role that African States have given to the African Union. That responsibility must be respected, he said, also highlighting the growing participation of African countries in peacekeeping operations. Africa is changing, and peacekeeping is also developing, he pointed out.

He went on to say that peace support operations are often carried out under challenging security conditions without the agreement of all parties involved. African peacekeepers increasingly have to act as mediators. Further, the expanding terrorist threat also implies the need to reassess the content of mandates and the way missions are deployed on a daily basis. Troops must have logistical support for their mandates and they must ensure respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. Also calling for genuine participation of women at all levels of responsibility, he said that targeted and immediate responses before the crisis have an added value when rectifying the deficiencies of governance.

MALEEHA LODHI (Pakistan), recalling that her country was the first to accede to the Declaration of Shared Commitments, said that the document reaffirmed the need to provide predictable, sustainable and flexible funding for African Union-led peace operations, especially those authorized by the Council. Pakistan’s brave peacekeepers continue to be deployed in African States, contributing to many of the continent’s success stories, from Liberia to Sierra Leone. They have protected civilians, provided medical care and rebuilt communities, she noted, adding that successful peacekeeping is a two-way street, which depended not only on the professionalism of peacekeepers, but also on adequate resources and realistic mandates.

THABO MICHAEL MOLEFE (South Africa), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said his country is among the world’s top 20 troop-contributors, with personnel serving in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan and Darfur. It is also actively involved in the finalization of the African Standby Force and its rapid deployment capability. Welcoming the Secretary-General’s Action for Peace initiative and the two agreements signed between the United Nations and the African Union, he voiced hope that those frameworks will help the continent achieve inclusive and sustainable peace, security and development. Echoing calls by other speakers as well as in reports of the African Union and the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations regarding the need for sustained, predictable and flexible funding mechanisms for African Union peace operations, he said such financing will take peacekeeping on the African continent to the next level. Such efforts would be in line with relevant Council resolutions and Chapter VIII of the Charter. No sustained peace will be possible without development. It is therefore crucial to ensure that countries emerging from conflict are supported to prevent relapse, including by helping them to restore institutional capacity and governance structures, maintain the rule of law, curb violence and embark on national reconciliation.

JEROEN COOREMAN (Belgium), associating himself with the European Union, said the African Union and subregional organizations play a crucial role in maintaining peace and security on the African continent, while also spearheading preventive diplomacy and helping to guide political processes. As the United Nations cannot address all of the globe’s conflicts alone, partnership is not a choice, it is a necessity, he emphasized. Regarding the specific modalities of funding African Union-led peace operations, he welcomed the Trust Fund established for that purpose. He also warned that it is out of the question to impose more or less stringent criteria on those missions than on missions of the United Nations. Indeed, equally rigorous standards are needed, particularly in such areas as civilian protection and human rights protection. Noting that African Union-led missions must be able to deploy rapidly, he said the Security Council is not the ideal forum to discuss funding modalities. Any agreement reached on that issue must be fully in line with the broader budgetary agreements reached by United Nations Member States.

BERNADITO CLEOPAS AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, declared: It is through the presence of the immediately recognizable Blue Helmets that the United Nations is most visible around the globe. In today’s increasingly fragmented world, peacekeeping operations provide a concrete opportunity for the international community to collaborate through diplomatic activities, financial contributions, expertise, troops and personnel. However, staff serving under the United Nations flag have literally built bridges only to see them destroyed by the enemies of peace, including armed groups and terrorists. In Africa, such organizations are often manipulated by political machinations from within or outside national borders with the aim of causing chaos. While many peacekeeping resources are devoted to the continent, the overall cost of peacekeeping represents only a miniscule portion of the world’s military spending. The international community should be prepared to invest more in such work, which must go hand in hand with diplomacy, prevention and sustainable development.

ROBERT MARDINI International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), said the Red Cross operates in many of the same contexts as the United Nations and African-led peacekeeping missions in Africa. Underscoring the need to ensure that those missions are clear about which legal framework governs their operations, he welcomed steps taken by the African Union to foster greater respect for international humanitarian law and human rights law. The ICRC has long assisted African States to integrate international standards into their national laws and is currently supporting the African Union in enhancing its compliance framework. In addition, each year the bloc and the ICRC co-organize a roundtable discussion of challenges and best practices in peacekeeping operations, addressing international humanitarian law and the protection of civilians. Further underlining the ICRC’s ability to provide training support, he said such training modules must be comprehensive, tailored to a particular mandate and relevant to the operational needs on the ground. Last year, the ICRC conducted training sessions on legal standards and humanitarian priorities for more than 25,000 peacekeepers including 16,000 from African States.

JORGE SKINNER-KLEA� ARENALES (Guatemala), condemning the attacks against the personnel of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), said that keeping peace is the most noble task of the Organization. Underscoring that the African Union’s peace support operations have strengthened the capacity of the United Nations, he observed that the partnership could enhance every aspect, from planning and assessment to joint presentation of reports. Chapter VIII of the Charter recognizes the importance of such cooperation in peace and security operations, he pointed out, adding that peacekeeping must take into account the priorities of the host country.

SAMUEL MONCADA (Venezuela), speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement, said that peacekeeping operations must be conducted in strict compliance with the principles of the Charter, including non-interference in the internal affairs of the States. Emphasizing the importance of dealing with the root causes of conflicts, he added that in order to ensure the success of peacekeeping operations, it is important to equip them with political support, human resources, financial and logistical resources, clear mandates and exit strategies.

African solutions for African problems is the principled position of the Movement, he said, welcoming the United Nations’ determination to strengthen its relationship with regional and subregional organizations. The security of peacekeeping personnel continues to be a matter of grave concern, and all possible measures must be taken to ensure justice and hold the perpetrators of such attacks accountable. Paying tribute to the work of peacekeepers, men and women who do their work in the context of armed conflict and adverse conditions, he expressed sincere gratitude to all of them, especially to those who lost their lives in the field defending the flag of the United Nations.

DIAN TRIANSYAH DJANI (Indonesia) said that since the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung more than six decades ago, Indonesia and African States worked together to achieve equality between all nations and to spur decolonization. Under the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership on politics, economy and socio-culture – initiated in 2005 and reinvigorated in 2015 numerous multi-faceted support projects are taking place. His country also engages in South-South and triangular programs and contributes nearly 1,400 troops and police to eight United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa. Those troops will be soon joined by an additional 1,000 peacekeepers being deployed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. He welcomed the intention of the United Nations Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council to formulate common positions and recommendations to address peace and security in the region. In this regard, he highlighted the need for financial support and the importance of innovatively using the Action for Peacekeeping Declaration to bolster support for such missions in Africa.

YARON WAX (Israel) said peacekeeping operations in Africa today are increasingly being targeted by armed groups whose attacks are steadily advancing in both complexity and intent. Strengthening those missions requires enhancement to peacekeepers’ safety and security, as well as to accelerated development and support for political processes and humanitarian assistance. Calling on States to adjust their mindsets to match the realities on the ground, he stressed: We must recognize that wearing a blue helmet no longer guarantees protection. All 61 peacekeeper fatalities in 2017 happened on the African continent. Reiterating Israel’s support for stronger peacekeeping operations there, as well as protection of personnel, he said his country has expanded its partnership to provide trainings and improve camp security, among other things. Citing encouraging recent developments in the Horn of Africa which demonstrate how peace and stability can be achieved he said African States’ leading roles must be respected. In addition, there can be zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers.

ROBERT KAYINAMURA (Rwanda), associating himself with the African Union, recalled that the Union is undergoing institutional reforms aimed at ensuring effectiveness of peace and security operations. Approximately 75 per cent of all peacekeeping personnel are African troops and 60 per cent of Security Council resolutions address issues on the continent. Africa is a central part of the business of the Security Council, he said, further emphasizing the importance of African Union involvement in that context. That partnership must capitalize on regional peace frameworks and mobilize further support for regionally-led peace processes. Close coordination on strategic conflict assessment, planning, reporting and burden sharing are essential, he said, expressing support for the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for Enhanced Partnership in Peace. Welcoming the launch of the African Union Peace Fund and the proposed draft resolution on stable financing of African Union peace operations, she said the latter will enable the Security Council to consider the African Union-led peace operations from the United Nations assessed contributions.

COLLEN VIXEN KELAPILE (Botswana), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that despite notable progress, African States are still mired in festering and active interstate conflicts, some with delicate cross-border dimensions. The continent finds itself facing the double jeopardy of simultaneously tackling conflict prevention and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In order to achieve genuine and sustainable peace, the primacy of local context and underlying regional dynamics must be fully taken into account, he stressed, also noting that the peace dividends being reaped in Somalia today are the result of the General Assembly’s bold decision to exceptionally authorize a United Nations-funded support package for the African Union Mission in Somalia.

OMAR HILALE (Morocco), welcoming the strengthened partnership between the United Nations and the African Union, said that approximately 80 per cent of personnel deployed in the Organization’s peacekeeping operations are deployed on the African continent. Enhanced cooperation is therefore a necessity, he stressed, urging Council members to take into consideration each organization’s human and financial resources. Moroccan troops have been deployed throughout Africa over the years and are currently active in MINUSCA and MONUSCO. Because many African countries have significant peacekeeping expertise relevant to the continent, capacity building and training might be more effective if it was provided by other African States. Welcoming efforts to integrate continuous improvements in such criteria as peacekeeper training, equipment and reimbursement, he said financing for peacekeeping on the continent should be undertaken through the United Nations regular budget’s assessed contributions, whether the missions are led by the Organization or by the African Union.

DANIELA DOINA JINGA (Romania) said that since 1991, when the first Romanian military peacekeepers were deployed in the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM), more than 12,500 Romanian military, police and close protection personnel served under the blue flag around the world. For the second year, her country is supporting the activity of the Office of the Special Coordinator on improving the United Nations response to sexual exploitation and abuse, with the provision of a military expert on military law. Romania is one of only two countries that have made available the services of qualified military personnel to assist the Office of the Special Coordinator. She also welcomed Security Council resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017), which are the cornerstone for solid and sustainable peacekeeping cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union.

RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada) said strengthening peace operations in Africa is more than just a question of resources, will and capabilities. Rather, it is about combining efforts to innovate and maximize the international community’s impact. Enabling collective action by African States through the United Nations, African Union or other regional African organizations is a practical step. However, there is also a need to find more predictable, flexible and sustainable financing mechanisms. Stressing that all Member States must pull their weight, he said Canada has committed new resources to United Nations peacekeeping, including a helicopter task force to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). It is also working to deploy a tactical airlift detachment to the United Nations Regional Service Centre in Uganda which will provide critical logistics support to African missions.

FRANCIS MUSTAPHA KAI-KAI (Sierra Leone) noted that the continent’s work to maintain regional peace and security is fraught with challenges, including a lack of sustainable, adequate and predictable financing. Addressing such challenges will require effective political strategies that incorporate the good offices functions of respected regional leaders, as well as the engagement of all parties in the quest for inclusive solutions. Welcoming the signing of the Joint African Union-United Nations Framework, he underlined the importance of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations. More attention must be paid to initiatives emanating from the African Union and mandated by the Security Council. That partnership should also cascade down to Africa’s subregional organizations and economic communities, whose contribution to ensuring peace and security on the continent cannot be overemphasized. Meanwhile, the funding of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects � including peacebuilding and State-building efforts � requires new solutions to overcome existing constraints. He voiced his support for a Council resolution establishing a United Nations assessed contribution mechanism to finance Council-mandated peace support missions operated by the African Union.

MAGDI AHMED MOFADAL ELNOUR (Sudan), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, reaffirmed the importance of African-led peacekeeping operations, he highlighted UNAMID as a success story. Recalling the recommendations of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations, he stressed the importance of regional and subregional perspectives when resolving conflicts in local contexts. It is vital to strengthen the capacity of African countries in peacekeeping in different dimensions, ranging from military to civilian personnel, to achieve the goal of silencing the guns on the continent by 2020.

SAADA DAHER HASSAN (Djibouti) noted the achievement of multiple peacekeeping milestones this year, including the approval of the Peace and Security Architecture Reform and the implementation of the action plan to enhance safety of peacekeepers. She also welcomed the Secretary-General’s reforms initiatives aimed at ensuring more effective peacekeeping. More than half of peacekeeping personnel come from African Member States, she said, adding that citizens of her country are serving in several operations, thereby helping to build peace and stability on the continent. She called for joint mandate planning processes and more consultations between the United Nations and the African Union and subregional organizations.

HAM SANG WOOK (Republic of Korea) underscored the need for strategic partnerships, along with partners that have the expertise to address peace and security challenges in Africa. The United Nations, which has a brand like no other, is best placed to convene and coordinate these different actors, he stressed. Pointing out that the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) took the lead in resolving the political crises in the Gambia in 2016 and then deployed forces there to maintain stability, he said the advantage of such subregional organizations has been especially clear in the areas of peace enforcement and counter-terrorism operations. The United Nations must work more closely with regional actors by providing then with the necessary support in line with Chapter VIII of the Charter. More cooperation is also needed to facilitate sustainable political solutions, convene joint meetings and make more effective joint decisions. Welcoming the upcoming submission of a joint United Nations-African Union roadmap aimed at addressing concerns related to accountability and compliance, he expressed hope that those initiatives � as well as the draft resolution on financing African Union-led peace operations to be tabled next month � will help move the discussion forward.

ABDOULAYE BARRO (Senegal) said that, as a major troop- and police-contributor, his country welcomes efforts aimed at rendering peacekeeping operations more effective. Calling for permanent solutions to sustainably financing African Union-led peace operations, he said there can be no question about cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union. The continent must be able to take its destiny in its own hands. African countries have demonstrated their willingness to make significant contributions to maintaining peace and stability. Drawing attention to the challenges � as well as opportunities � present in the Sahel region, he pointed to the increasing involvement by Francophone nations in peace operations and their overall deployment in French-speaking areas of Africa. In that context, he voiced support for enhanced multilingualism in peacekeeping, as well as enhanced preventive diplomacy and mediation efforts. Among other things, Senegal established a training centre where peacekeepers receive pre-deployment training in line with United Nations standards, including on sexual exploitation and abuse prevention, he said.

FRANCISCO DUARTE LOPES (Portugal) said Portuguese forces are presently deployed in various peace operations across the African continent, including in MINUSCA. However, the scope and complexity of peacekeeping today are not yet matched by the resources needed to address them. Underlining the important role of preventive diplomacy and mediation, he said Portugal is a signatory of the Declaration on Shared Commitments and supports enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. Those partnerships could be improved by ensuring flexible, predictable financing as well as ensuring that African Union-led forces receive appropriate human rights and code of conduct training. His country supports peace operations in Africa through the European Union’s African Peace Facility, he said, reiterating his county’s offer to contribute to training other nations’ troops, including those in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

SABRI BOUKADOUM (Algeria), noting that peacekeeping has become the most visible part of the United Nations activities, said it was bold diplomacy that brought it forth. However, it is also a double-edged sword; any failure to deliver has a detrimental impact on the Organization’s credibility. It is on African soil that peacekeepers are facing the most complex challenges, often working in dangerous environments where there is no peace to keep. Peacekeeping cannot succeed without a viable political process, even in counterterrorism contexts. Calling on the international community to step up its commitments to post-conflict situations, he said the African Union has shown its strength, especially in situations where offensive operations are needed and when the Council is unable to mobilize the requisite political consensus required for action. When African States call on the Council to do more, the call should be understood in the context of the United Nations Charter, he stressed.

LAZARUS OMBAI AMAYO (Kenya) said that most of the challenges in African peace and security can be addressed by deepening strategic cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations. Welcoming advances in the partnership, he said that the two organizations should engender a greater degree of coherence and coordination in their efforts. While respecting the basic principles of peacekeeping, it is also important to align to new realities, such as the threats that face AMISOM and the G-5 Sahel initiative where peacekeepers are a direct target. Similarly, those missions rely on voluntary sources that are rarely predictable, indicating that assessed contributions are the most viable option to ensure sustainability. As each mission presents unique challenges, pre-deployment training needs to be tailored to suit each mission environment and threats. For that reason, his country has offered the services of its International Peace Support Training Centre with hopes of partnering with the United Nations and other stakeholders to advance peacekeeper training, he said.

SAMSON SUNDAY ITEGBOJE (Nigeria) emphasized that because the root causes of conflict on the African continent are multifaceted a comprehensive approach is required to address them. Above all, the response must be based on the quest for collective security with the international community acting in concert. Outlining lessons learned by his country during its engagement in Sierra Leone and Liberia, he said the demands placed on the African Union far outweigh its resources and capacity to effectively respond. Allowing the regional bloc’s missions to fail would lead to reluctance among potential partners to contribute to peacekeeping. The Brahimi report, the Independent High-level Panel on Peacekeeping Operations and other reviews have all found that financing options are not difficult to identify. The Council should endorse a financing option that guarantees the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of funding for African Union peacekeeping operations mandated by the United Nations. He also spotlighted the critical role of women in conflict resolution and the building of stable societies, welcoming their increased participation in peacekeeping operations.

RAZIYE BILGE KOCYIGIT GRBA (Turkey) said that peacekeeping is constantly evolving and being tailored to meet new challenges. The diversity of such challenges requires the contribution of a myriad of actors, including regional and sub-regional organizations, civil society and the private sector. Because various regional organizations such as the African Union have become established actors in peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts, the United Nations should be able to support and make use of the capabilities of these blocs. The ultimate objective for missions on the continent is to generate success stories of African ownership and responsiveness. Somalia is a textbook example of the partnership and collaboration of the United Nations, African Union and European Union. She noted her appreciation for the noble endeavour of AMISOM in the pursuit of bringing peace and security to that country. Turkey is maintaining its support to Somalia in numerous fields, including capacity-building for Somali institutions in terms of military and policing, she said.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that political peace processes spearheaded by the African regional and sub-regional organizations must be duly factored into the mandate design and delivery of the relevant United Nations peacekeeping operations. Calling for due consideration to the Secretary-General’s constructive suggestions for United Nations-African Union joint action and funding, he added that the traditional structures of peacekeeping operations need to be revisited through a multi-dimensional and multi-stakeholder approach. Bangladesh values its association with the African continent, he said, adding that while it would be self-defeating to engage United Nations peacekeepers in direct counter-terrorism operations, in certain African theatres, the mission could support the concerned State in strengthening its counterterrorism strategies.

Source: United Nations

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Delegates in Security Council Call for Using United Nations Assessed Contributions as Means to Strengthen Peacekeeping Operations in Africa

Secretary-General, Peace and Security Commissioner Highlight Significant Aspects of Partnership between United Nations, African Union

Strengthening cooperation with the African Union, including by providing it with adequate financing, is key to strengthening peacekeeping operations on the continent, speakers told the Security Council as it held a day-long open debate on that subject.

Our partnership with the African Union and African Member States is vital to our collective efforts for peace, and we must continue working to strengthen it, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said in remarks before the meeting. SmaA�l Chergui, the African Union’s Commissioner for Peace and Security, also briefed members.

The Secretary-General noted the close collaboration between the United Nations and the Union across the continent, from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Mali, Central African Republic and Darfur, to supporting political processes, national dialogues and regional mediation efforts, easing tensions and paving the way for peace agreements and elections. Such cooperation becomes increasingly important as peacekeeping encompasses complex operations with multidimensional mandates in extremely dangerous environments, he said.

He went on to emphasize the need to build the capacity to enable Africa to play its full role in that context, and to improve funding methods. It is essential that African-led peace operations acting under the Security Council’s authority are provided with strong mandates and predictable, sustainable and flexible finance, including through UN assessed contributions where appropriate, he stated.

Mr. Chergui, speaking via video-teleconference from Addis Ababa, said the African Union has spared no effort in expediting priorities that help to strengthen its partnership with United Nations peacekeeping, including the launch of the revitalized Peace Fund on 17 November 2018, noting that African Union member States have contributed $60 million. Significant progress has also been made in enhancing the human rights compliance framework for African Union peace support operations, as well as in joint analysis, planning and cooperation with the United Nations, he added. To strengthen the partnership, the Security Council should adopt a draft resolution � to be tabled in the coming weeks � on the need for the African Union to gain access to United Nations assessed contributions for operations authorized by the United Nations, on a case-by-case basis. That text, when adopted, should not be overloaded with conditionalities that would delay progress in the management of peace and security in Africa, he emphasized.

Delegates then took the floor to express strong support for building African peacekeeping capacity on the continent and for strengthening its partnership with the United Nations. Like many other speakers, Botswana’s representative noted the complexity of festering as well as active conflicts with delicate cross-border dimensions, saying the continent finds itself facing the simultaneous tasks of tackling conflict and implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Regional efforts can better take the local context and regional dynamics into account in facing that inter-related challenge, he added.

On the question of funding, CAte d’Ivoire’s representative called � in a statement he read out on behalf of the other two African Council members, Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea � for the adoption of a resolution that would provide a framework for predictable and dependable funding, including from United Nations assessed contributions. In that context, they noted the progress made on institutional reform of the African Union in favour of financial autonomy, greater accountability and effectiveness.

While many African delegations expressed strong support for the adoption of such a resolution, and for tabling it during Equatorial Guinea’s December Presidency, others stressed that they will only support such an action if the necessary criteria are truly met and if it is based on the primacy of the Security Council in international peace and security. France’s representative said stronger funding commitments will deepen international solidarity.

Other speakers were more reluctant to endorse the African Union’s access to assessed contributions at the present time. In that vein, the representative of the United States emphasized that a rushed process which changes peacekeeping permanently is not the answer to the formidable challenges confronting peace and security in Africa.

Belgium’s representative stressed the need for equally rigorous standards for all peacekeeping operations, particularly in such areas as civilian protection and human rights. In addition, he said African Union-led missions must be able to deploy rapidly, while pointing out that the Security Council is not the ideal forum in which to discuss funding modalities.

The Russian Federation’s representative emphasized his country’s consistent support for African ownership of efforts to meet challenges on the continent under the principle of African problems, African solutions. He called for further consideration of funding modalities, while respecting the basic principles of peacekeeping. The priority is enabling African efforts without imposing policies prompted by the self-interest of some donor countries, which often result in counter-productive sanctions and armed interventions, he said.

With most speakers pledging their commitment to considering more dependable support for African peacekeeping, however, an observer for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) welcomed the African Union’s endeavours to foster greater respect for international humanitarian law and international human rights law, describing the Committee’s own efforts to support the bloc.

At the meeting’s outset, the Secretary-General requested that delegates observe a moment of silence in honour of eight peacekeepers killed last week in the Central African Republic and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They were nationals of Malawi and the United Republic of Tanzania.

Also speaking today were representatives of China, Kazakhstan, United Kingdom, Kuwait, Bolivia, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Peru, India, Switzerland, Japan, Brazil, Egypt, Ireland, Italy, Iran, Argentina, Namibia, Norway, Philippines, Germany, Estonia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Guatemala, Venezuela (on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement), Indonesia, Israel, Rwanda, Morocco, Romania, Canada, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Djibouti, Republic of Korea, Senegal, Portugal, Algeria, Kenya, Nigeria, Turkey and Bangladesh.

An observer for the European Union delegation and the Permanent Observer for the Holy See also delivered statements.

The meeting began at 10:05 a.m. and ended at 4:20 p.m.

Briefings

ANTA�NIO GUTERRES, Secretary-General of the United Nations, described peacekeeping as a remarkable exercise in global solidarity. Paying tribute to all Blue Helmets, he requested that the meeting observe a moment of silence in honour of eight peacekeepers from African countries killed last week in the performance of their duties. He also thanked the Council presidency for China’s contributions and welcomed its pledge to establish a peacekeeping standby force. Pointing out that the African continent hosts 7 of the 14 United Nations peacekeeping missions and is home to more than 80 per cent of its peacekeepers, he said African countries provide nearly half of the Blue Helmets deployed around the world, including almost two thirds of all women peacekeepers and the majority of police officers. Recalling the successful completion of mandates in CAte d’Ivoire and Liberia, he stated: From the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to Mali, to the Central African Republic and Darfur, the African Union and United Nations have worked closely to support political processes, national dialogues and regional mediation efforts, easing tensions and paving the way for peace agreements and elections. Recently in South Sudan, he recalled, the two organizations worked together in support of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) to ensure the signing of the Revitalized Agreement in that country. Over the last decade, the African Union peace and security architecture has been strengthened considerably and a key pillar, the African Union Peace Fund, is being operationalized, he noted.

However, peacekeeping in Africa continues to present great challenges, he acknowledged. United Nations missions are carrying out complex operations under multidimensional mandates and in extremely dangerous environments. Transnational crime, non-State armed groups and terrorist groups pose serious challenges, sometimes directly targeting peacekeepers. In that context, our partnership with the African Union and African Member States is vital to our collective efforts for peace, and we must continue working to strengthen it, he emphasized. As examples of high-level cooperation, he cited the signing of the Joint United Nations-African Union Frameworks on Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security and on Implementation of the African Agenda 2063, and the global 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to promote coherence, efficiency and effectiveness. Joint missions to the continent include the recent one focusing on the role of South Sudan’s women in building peace. In addition, he said, 42 African Governments are among the 150 to have signed the Declaration of Shared Commitments in support of his Action for Peacekeeping initiative for more effective peacekeeping and greater support for political solutions, security of peacekeepers and adequate equipment and training. Its ongoing, proactive implementation requires partnerships with troop-contributing countries, regional organizations and host Governments, he added. Outlining goals for more integrated analyses and stronger national and regional strategies, he said they include closer integration of conflict-prevention, peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts that place sustainable development at their core.

Steps are also being taken to increase the numbers of women at all levels of peacekeeping and to tackle sexual exploitation and abuse, he continued. African peace operations, including those mandated by the African Union, have played a key role in maintaining peace and security on the continent, he added, emphasizing: They deserve predictable systems of support. Joint planning for mandating African peace support operations and for legal and human rights compliance frameworks are critical parts of that effort, he said, noting the growing number of situations requiring peace-enforcement and counter-terrorism operations that can only be carried out by such partners as the African Union and various subregional configurations. He went on to stress: It is essential that African-led peace operations acting under the Security Council’s authority are provided with strong mandates and predictable, sustainable and flexible finance, including through UN-assessed contributions where appropriate. In that regard, he called for greater support to enable the Joint Force for the Group of Five for the Sahel (G5 Sahel) to combat terrorism and organized crime. While expressing gratitude to the European Union and other donors, he said that up to half the pledges have not been earmarked, let alone disbursed. In our interconnected age, security challenges on one continent present a risk to the whole world, he said, underlining that the factors that drive conflict in Africa � including poverty, youth unemployment, climate change, competition for resources and transnational crime � threaten global security. For that reason, improving the impact and effectiveness of peacekeeping in Africa is a collective responsibility, he said.

SMAA�L CHEGUI, Commissioner for Peace and Security of the African Union, said peacekeeping reform is of shared and critical interest to the United Nations and regional organizations. The 2017 high-level Security Council debate on peacekeeping reform and the resultant resolution (document S/RES/2378 (2017)) is an important locus on which to continue monitoring efforts towards enhanced cooperation and peacekeeping reform. He said that since his briefing to the Council in 2017, the African Union has spared no effort in expediting priorities for strengthening the partnership. It continues to facilitate key processes of the revitalized Peace Fund launched on 17 November 2018, on the sidelines of the eleventh Extraordinary Assembly on African Union Reform. The launch was preceded by the inaugural meeting of the Board of Trustees, he said, emphasizing that the latter will ensure effective management and accountability on the Peace Fund’s part. Member States of the African Union have contributed $60 million to the Fund, he added.

The African Union Commission has recorded significant progress in enhancing the existing human rights compliance framework for its peace support operations, he continued. Ensuring compliance and accountability to international humanitarian law and international human rights law is not new to the African Union, having always been a part of its mission planning and management processes. Recalling that the African Union and the United Nations have jointly undertaken four joint reviews of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) since 2013, he said they have allowed for greater joint analysis, planning and cooperation between the two secretariats.

Urging the Council to further enhance its strategic engagement with the African Union Peace and Security Council, he said it should seize the opportunity to adopt the draft resolution to be tabled in the coming weeks on the need for the African Union to have access to United Nations assessed contributions for Council-authorized operations on a case-by-case basis. The African Union understands the aims and objective of the draft resolutions currently being negotiated by Council members, he said, adding that, when adopted, it should indicate that the Council agrees, in principle, to the use of United Nations assessed contributions for African Union peace support operations authorized by the Council, on a case-by-case basis. He emphasized that the draft resolution, when adopted, should not be overloaded with conditionalities that would delay progress in the management of peace and security in Africa.

Statements

MA ZHAOXU (China), Council President for November, spoke in his national capacity, affirming that African efforts are critical to building peace on the continent. Noting the progress made in the past few years in that regard, as well as the closer cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, he said that strengthening peacekeeping in Africa is indeed a shared responsibility and capacity on the continent must be built. In that regard, basic Charter and peacekeeping principles must be respected, including the sovereignty of the countries concerned. Stressing the need to enable African countries to deal with African issues in an African manner, he expressed support for sustainable and predictable funding for African Union peace operations under their own leadership, as well as for rapid-reaction and early-warning mechanisms. African troop contributors must also have support in strengthening their capabilities, he said, underlining his country’s extensive contributions to peacekeeping in Africa, including the China-Africa security fund to assist African Union peacekeeping missions. He called upon other Council members to join hands with regional partners for closer collaboration.

KACOU HOUADJA LA�ON ADOM (CAte d’Ivoire), speaking also for Ethiopia and Equatorial Guinea, noted the progress made in institutional reform of the African Union in favour of financial autonomy, greater accountability and effectiveness. Affirming the strengthening of cooperation with both China and the United Nations in that effort, he underlined the African Union’s determination to lead in peace and security efforts on the continent through comparative advantages as well as continental and regional arrangements. The peace and security architecture must be able to adapt to developing challenges, he said. While welcoming the new strategic framework between the African Union and the United Nations, he cautioned, however, that the effectiveness of African peacekeeping efforts still depends on unpredictable resources. There is need for mechanisms to remedy that situation, as stated in previous Council resolutions calling for the provision of assessed contributions for that purpose, on a case-by-case basis and under arrangements that ensure accountability, he said, emphasizing that priority has been accorded to progress on that front. He urged engagement by all stakeholders on that issue, leading to the adoption in December of a draft resolution that will provide a framework for predictable and dependable funding, including from assessed contributions. A roadmap will be presented shortly, he added, stressing that the African commitment to taking ownership of its own destiny has never been as strong as it is now

KAIRAT UMAROV (Kazakhstan), emphasizing the African Union’s crucial partnership with the United Nations, said the peace operations led by the regional bloc are absolute essentials for the Council’s ability to maintain global peace and security � especially in light of the limitations of the Organization’s peacekeeping doctrine in such areas as peace enforcement and counter-terrorism. Welcoming the two organizations’ Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security, as well as the Joint Framework for Sustainable Development, he said that improving peace and security in Africa will mean capitalizing on those frameworks to the fullest extent, including joint field visits, joint briefings and improved modalities for joint technical analysis, planning, assessment and reporting. Also underlining the important role of subregional mechanisms, he voiced Kazakhstan’s view that funding should be provided on a case-by-case basis � in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter � pointing out that in several resolutions the Council has expressed its readiness to consider joint financing of missions through United Nations assessed contributions.

JONATHAN GUY ALLEN (United Kingdom) said peacekeeping remains one of the Organization’s most effective tools for the maintenance of peace and security. With that in mind, peacekeepers should be properly equipped to meet the challenges they will face so that they are able to carry out their mandates and ensure their own safety. Where units perform poorly, they put themselves as well as the civilians they are mandated to protect at risk, he said, emphasizing that missions must be robustly and fairly assessed, using accurate data collected from the field. Welcoming the Secretariat’s efforts in that regard, he emphasized that implementation of the Secretary-General’s zero-tolerance policy on sexual abuse must continue. On collaboration, he said that good use must be made of individual strengths so that collective efforts are greater than the sum of their parts.

MANSOUR AYYAD SH. A. ALOTAIBI (Kuwait), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that chapter 8 of the Charter of the United Nations, on partnership, provides an umbrella for regional cooperation. The noble objective of silencing guns remains possible through concerted efforts, he added. AMISOM and the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) represent a model that puts the African State at the forefront of defending their continent’s security and building the capacities of host countries, especially since African troop-contributing countries have the advantage of rapid response, he said. Regarding the official launch of the Peace Fund, he said that historic point represents a step towards promoting African solutions to African problems. He expressed hope that predictable funding will be secured for peacekeeping operations led by the African Union and mandated by the Security Council.

SACHA SERGIO LLORENTTY SOLA�Z (Bolivia), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, reaffirmed the importance of improving cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations, highlighting the international community’s responsibility to facilitate that relationship. He welcomed the efforts undertaken with regard to the silencing the guns initiative and the signing of the memorandum of understanding between the African Union and the United Nations, saying they will improve the continent’s ability to counter terrorism, which hampers peacebuilding and development. Describing the deployment of joint hybrid operations as a key element in the quest for peace, security and resilience, he said they are a useful tool for countering terrorism and transnational crime.

KAREL JAN GUSTAAF VAN OOSTEROM (Netherlands) said that a strong partnership between the African Union and the United Nations enables the international community to respond swiftly and decisively in addressing challenges to peace and security in Africa, adding that the bloc’s ability to act as a first responder and move in quickly should be facilitated as much as possible. The strength of peace support operations is so very dependent on troop-contributing countries, he noted, also highlighting the importance of predictable and sustainable financing for African Union peace operations. We all need to invest in the African Union’s capacities, he emphasized, encouraging the latter to continue drafting and implementing compliance frameworks, in collaboration with the United Nations.

JOANNA WRONECKA (Poland) described the African Union as the Organization’s most important strategic partner in the realm of peace and security, development and human rights. Welcoming the development of the framework for compliance with international humanitarian law and international human rights law in the conduct and discipline of African Union peace support operations, she emphasized the importance of enhancing inter-mission cooperation, noting also the need to transfer best practices from Africa to other regions.

FRANCOIS DELATTRE (France) endorsed the statement made on behalf of the three African Council members and pledged his country’s continuing support for strengthening the relationship between the United Nations and the African Union. The partnership can now be seen daily on the ground, including in the Central African Republic and elsewhere. He cautioned, however, against undermining the collective framework for financing and other support. Among the advantages of African peace operations is their adaptability to threats, clear mandates and lower costs in relation to United Nations operations, he noted. Welcoming the African Union’s pursuit of a far-reaching resolution by the end of 2018, he noted that the text entails increasing the bloc’s Peace Fund to 20 per cent of costs, with 75 per cent provided by the United Nations, including from assessed contributions. He stressed that any framework of cooperation should underline the primacy of the Security Council and the need for clear mandates for operations. In that context, France supports the mobilization of assessed contributions to support operations mandated by the Council and the African Union, he said, adding that such a framework will not only build African peacekeeping capacity, but also ensure international solidarity. African countries can count on the resolute support of France in that regard, he added, paying tribute to peacekeepers on the continent.

JONATHAN R. COHEN (United States), affirming the importance of the partnership between the African Union and the United Nations, while also paying tribute to African troop contributors, emphasized the importance of carefully considering how the relationship should be strengthened. On the matter of assessed contributions, in particular, one must ask how it will affect peace on the ground and human rights in Africa, he said, recalling that previous resolutions set out specific conditions for considering the use of assessed contributions, including 20 per cent African funding for operations, high performance standards and guarantees of respect for human rights. While much progress has been made in those areas, more is necessary, he said, stressing that it is premature to move to the next step. Full political and legislative support from capitals is also needed in order to make significant changes, he added, noting that the United States Congress will not be able to meet on such matters until 2019. While calling for further consideration of the issue, he underlined that the United States will remain the top contributor to peacekeeping support and will continue its extensive training of contingents in Africa. However, a rushed process that changes peacekeeping permanently is not the answer to the formidable challenges to peace and security on the continent, he reiterated.

DMITRY A. POLYANSKIY (Russian Federation) said his country consistently supports African ownership of efforts to meet challenges on the continent, under the principle of African problems, African solutions. Emphasizing that blanket solutions must not be imposed on African countries, he welcomed the development of African mechanisms in peace and security, such as the permanent standing force. Agreeing that it is important to enhance the adequacy and predictability of funding, he called for further consideration of that matter, while stressing the importance of maintaining the standing orders of peacekeeping, as well as respecting its basic principles. He underlined as well the need for Africans to be able to formulate achievable mandates for their operations. Citing Council-mandated arms embargoes that weakened possibilities for settling conflicts in some African situations, he blamed a focus on narrow interests for counter-productive measures, as in Libya, where Western countries, acting with force of arms, bypassed the African plan for a political solution, thereby bringing on the destabilization of the whole region. The Russian Federation supports all actors for peace in Africa that act in good faith and without narrow agendas, he emphasized. Citing the many instances of cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union, he said no mission should have a limitless date, adding that there should be no obstacles to drawdown efforts, as in the case of MONUSCO. He outlines his country’s multiform support for African contributions to peacekeeping, including its training of contingents in Russian institutions.

IRINA SCHOULGIN NYONI (Sweden), associating herself with the European Union, said that her country has long supported an enhanced the strategic partnership between the United Nations and Africa’s regional and subregional organizations. Highlighting last week’s briefing on the joint visit to South Sudan by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and the African Union Commissioner for Peace and Security as first-hand evidence of that cooperation, she noted also the launch of the African Union Peace Fund last week, describing it as an important step towards enhancing self-reliance in financing the African Union’s activities. He stressed that it is also vital to go beyond military responses and address the root causes of conflicts, build transparent and inclusive institutions, and scale up efforts to address illicit financial flows.

PAUL DUCLOS (Peru) said African peace support operations can benefit from the experience of peacekeeping operations deployed under Security Council mandates. Encouraging the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to continue enhancing cooperation with the African Union, he said the United Nations should support the efforts of African States to ensure flexible and sustainable financing for peace support operations, he noted, adding that adequate financing of operations is crucial if they are to attain their targets and maintain reserve forces capable of deploying rapidly when faced with emerging threats. He closed by paying tribute to the Blue Helmets who recently lost their lives.

SYED AKBARUDDIN (India) noted that peacekeeping mandates must be prioritized to help allocate the meagre resources available. Vast environments are being covered by peace missions, including in the Democratic Republic of the Congo where approximately 3,000 troops are responsible for 11 million people in the central sector. The size and scale of United Nations deployment are insufficient, setting us all up for a tragedy, he warned. Since Africa contributes the largest number of personnel to peacekeeping operations, the United Nations must consider how to support its African partners through mechanisms of soft coordination.

JARG LAUBER (Switzerland), welcoming the various framework agreements between the African Union and the United Nations, underscored that it is necessary to understand and transform the causes of violence in order to offer real alternatives for peace. Switzerland has been pursuing an agenda to prevent violence and consolidate peace with partners on the African continent. For nearly a decade, her country has been providing support for centres of excellence which provide training and expertise to strengthen the capacities of African peace operations. Securing sustainable and predictable funding for African peace operations is strategically important, he emphasized, also highlighting the importance of respect for human rights and international humanitarian law as a frame of reference for that cooperation.

KORO BESSHO (Japan) said the United Nations must work with African partners to improve the quality of peacekeeping. Noting that 13 of the top 20 troop- and police-contributing countries were in Africa, he emphasized the importance of capacity-building for African nations. Japan has supported African peacekeeping efforts over the years, including partnerships with peacekeeping institutes in 13 countries on the continent. Given the wide range of security challenges in Africa, empowering its institutions and its people will be a real driving force for peace and security, he stated.

MAURO VIEIRA (Brazil) noted that his country is currently contributing to six peacekeeping missions in Africa and is engaged in the pre-deployment training of African military engineers through triangular partnership projects. In addition, the Brazilian Peace Operations Joint Training Center promotes the exchange of best practices. Because peacekeeping is meant to be a temporary, but decisive endeavour, he noted that a limited set of core political goals should guide every mission’s task on the continent. Moreover, the African perspective should be considered in the decision-making process, especially in terms of mandates. Only Security Council reform which expands both permanent and non-permanent membership categories can adequately address the issue of representation for African and developing countries. As well, supporting the primacy of African politics in preventing and peacefully solving the continent’s problems should be part and parcel of a comprehensive strategy to enhance African capabilities in peace and security.

MOHAMED FATHI AHMED EDREES (Egypt), pointing to unprecedented challenges of missions in Africa as well as the prospect of reduced funding, pledged his country’s commitment to strengthen peacekeeping on the continent. Egypt has contributed more than 30,000 troops and police to United Nations operations since 1960. However, there is a need for comprehensive design and review, as well as a viable exit strategy for every mission. Priority must be given to political solutions to conflicts. More efforts and resources must be invested in building peace according to the priorities of the host States and the specificities of every conflict. Respecting the sovereignty and wishes of the host countries and avoiding force except for self-defence is paramount. Mandates must be realistic and adapt to realities on the ground. In addition, the safety of peacekeepers must be a priority. National ownership of all processes must be prioritized and coordination with the African Union must be strengthened. Egypt, among other activities, participated in the recent regional conference in Cairo, building on the Declaration of Shared Commitments on United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.

GERALDINE BYRNE NASON (Ireland) recalled that Ireland’s first deployment of an armed peacekeeping contingent was in Congo in 1960. Nearly 60 years later, it is still actively contributing to United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa and the Middle East. Full use should be made of the opportunities of the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. There should also be greater communication between the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council. Emphasis must be placed on operational cooperation that makes a real difference, such as joint analysis, planning and reviews. Financing options must be explored both within and outside of the United Nations budget. It is clear that the current funding structure for African-led peace operations is unsustainable. The ongoing question of the role of the United Nations regular budget is an important one, but should not detract from the question of how the international community could best support African States to finance their initiatives for peace and security on the continent.

MARIA ANGELA ZAPPIA (Italy), associating herself with the European Union, said that the African Union is an active global player in peace and security and is also enhancing its own instruments in order to respond effectively to threats and crises affecting the continent. Thanks to its carabinieri and defence forces, from Somalia to the Sahel, Italy is sparing no effort to build capacity across the board, including border security, election security and justice and correction practices, as well as the fight against organized crime and trafficking. In 2018, her Government committed additional resources to specific training and capacity-building programmes. The African Union-led peace operations have comparative advantages in terms of flexibility and rapid deployment. Still, their main challenge is the lack of sustainable and predictable funding. She noted she remains in favour of using United Nations assessed contributions for African-led peace operations, provided that appropriate standards in terms of troop quality, training, equipment, financial transparency and human rights compliance are met.

ESHAGH AL HABIB (Iran), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that the United Nations and the international community have a responsibility to assist African States in strengthening their capacity to maintain peace and security. At the same time, the fact that, out of 14 total, the 5 largest United Nations peacekeeping missions are deployed in Africa proves the importance that the Organization attaches to preserving and promoting peace on the continent. The United Nations also has a responsibility to make use of the capacities of African countries. To promote peace and security, African Union-led peace operations authorized by the Security Council should be promoted. All such peacekeeping operations should be based on the respect of the basic principles of peacekeeping, such as the consent of parties, impartiality and the non-use of force except in self-defence and defence of the mandate.

MARTA�N GARCA�A MORITA�N (Argentina), reaffirming his country’s commitment to peacekeeping operations, said that such operations must be part of a holistic strategy for peace through sustainable development and respect for human rights. Citing the contributions made by Argentina to operations, he called for more nimble missions with advanced planning and sufficient resources. For the objective of building sustainable peace, partnership with regional organizations is critical. All stakeholders should renew their commitment to peacekeeping; that is why Argentina signed on to the Declaration on Action for Peacekeeping. Dialogue and mediation capabilities of regional organizations are particularly important in bolstering the strategic partnership of the African Union and the United Nations. Condemning all attacks against peacekeeping tasks, he called for those perpetrators to be held to account and paid tribute to all those who sacrificed for a fairer and peaceful world.

NEVILLE MELVIN GERTZE (Namibia), highlighting the current seven peacekeeping mission in Africa, said strengthening the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union is key to strengthening operations. The capacity of these two organizations to cooperate on matters of peace and security has been amply demonstrated, he said, pointing to their successful collaboration in Somalia and Darfur. Adding that African States have contributed their full share to peacekeeping, he said due recognition should be given to peacekeepers who have valiantly stood in harm’s way and laid down their lives for peace. The African Union’s decision to take financial responsibility for 25 per cent of its peace activities bears further witness to its unflinching commitment to secure peace on the continent.

TORE HATTREM (Norway), also speaking for Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Sweden, said that the Nordic countries have long supported peace and security in Africa, most recently demonstrated vis-a-vis the joint force of the G-5 Sahel. However, because the situation on the ground remains challenging, the Secretary-General’s Action for Peace initiative will benefit all peace operations on the continent. Peace operations should always support a political process � as demonstrated by the unified support for the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan. In addition, more must be done to increase the number of women peacekeepers and to address sexual and gender-based violence in conflicts across Africa. Underscoring that the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union must be strengthened, including in financing, he voiced support for a system that combines both assessed contributions from the United Nations and African Union funding, based on transparent reporting and in full compliance with United Nations standards on human rights and other critical matters.

ARIEL RODELAS PENARANDA (Philippines) said strengthening peacekeeping operations on the continent could be accomplished through capacity-building, training or peer-learning exercises, along with exchanging best practices. Voluntary contributions are also very important, he noted, reporting that the Philippines is a contributor to the Peacebuilding Fund. His country’s deployment policy is guided by the Philippine National Council for United Nations Peace Operations, which deploys military, police and civilian personnel to missions in Darfur, Central African Republic, Somalia and South Sudan. Moreover, his country promotes women’s contributions to peace negotiations and peacebuilding, with 17 female personnel from the Philippines serving in peacekeeping and special political missions in African States.

MATHIAS LICHARZ (Germany), associating himself with the European Union, said Germany was among the first countries to endorse the Declaration of Shared Commitments on Peacekeeping Operations put forth by the Secretary-General in August. It has also stepped up its contribution to crisis prevention and peacekeeping efforts by providing training and specialized equipment to many African troop- and police-contributing countries. Such efforts include mobile training teams for pre-deployment; improvised explosive device training to the countries contributing troops to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA); and training to increase the command capacities of high-risk missions across Africa. However, there remains a need to enhance the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of financing for African Union-led operations authorized by the Council. A mechanism should be considered through which those missions could be financed through United Nations assessed contributions, on a case-by-case basis.

SVEN JARGENSON (Estonia), voicing support for more realistic, robust and tailored mandates for peacekeeping operations, said it is important to enable closer coordination among United Nations mission commanders to help set up achievable tasks for the successful fulfilment of mandates. As well, the African Union’s Agenda 2063 underscores that forging synergies between governance and peace and security is crucial for addressing conflicts in a holistic manner. He welcomed such efforts regarding concrete structural conflict prevention initiatives, early warning, mediation and preventive diplomacy. No one can solve the conflicts of the world alone, he stressed. Forging synergies between partners and making the most of what the multilateral system has to offer will continue to bring the international community closer to lasting peace and economic well-being.

JUAN SANDOVAL MENDIOLEA (Mexico), expressing gratitude to the men and women who sacrificed themselves for the cause of peace, said that the international community is moving towards a new paradigm in which peace and security are inextricably linked with sustainable development. On the African continent, as in the rest of the world, inclusion and the establishment of a healthy social fabric are of vital importance for conflict prevention. Women and young people must be adequately represented in the solutions offered by the United Nations, he said, also stressing the importance of responding to warning signs. Peacekeeping reforms should increase effectiveness and accountability, he noted, adding that Mexico is one of the 150 countries who endorsed the Declaration of Shared Commitments.

GUSTAVO MARTIN PRADA, the European Union, stressing the need to ensure financial resources for peacekeeping operations mandated by the Union and authorized by the Council, voiced support for the Joint Framework. He also welcomed the recognition of African responsibility for the management of security challenges on the continent, noting the prime role that African States have given to the African Union. That responsibility must be respected, he said, also highlighting the growing participation of African countries in peacekeeping operations. Africa is changing, and peacekeeping is also developing, he pointed out.

He went on to say that peace support operations are often carried out under challenging security conditions without the agreement of all parties involved. African peacekeepers increasingly have to act as mediators. Further, the expanding terrorist threat also implies the need to reassess the content of mandates and the way missions are deployed on a daily basis. Troops must have logistical support for their mandates and they must ensure respect for human rights and international humanitarian law. Also calling for genuine participation of women at all levels of responsibility, he said that targeted and immediate responses before the crisis have an added value when rectifying the deficiencies of governance.

MALEEHA LODHI (Pakistan), recalling that her country was the first to accede to the Declaration of Shared Commitments, said that the document reaffirmed the need to provide predictable, sustainable and flexible funding for African Union-led peace operations, especially those authorized by the Council. Pakistan’s brave peacekeepers continue to be deployed in African States, contributing to many of the continent’s success stories, from Liberia to Sierra Leone. They have protected civilians, provided medical care and rebuilt communities, she noted, adding that successful peacekeeping is a two-way street, which depended not only on the professionalism of peacekeepers, but also on adequate resources and realistic mandates.

THABO MICHAEL MOLEFE (South Africa), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said his country is among the world’s top 20 troop-contributors, with personnel serving in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan and Darfur. It is also actively involved in the finalization of the African Standby Force and its rapid deployment capability. Welcoming the Secretary-General’s Action for Peace initiative and the two agreements signed between the United Nations and the African Union, he voiced hope that those frameworks will help the continent achieve inclusive and sustainable peace, security and development. Echoing calls by other speakers as well as in reports of the African Union and the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations regarding the need for sustained, predictable and flexible funding mechanisms for African Union peace operations, he said such financing will take peacekeeping on the African continent to the next level. Such efforts would be in line with relevant Council resolutions and Chapter VIII of the Charter. No sustained peace will be possible without development. It is therefore crucial to ensure that countries emerging from conflict are supported to prevent relapse, including by helping them to restore institutional capacity and governance structures, maintain the rule of law, curb violence and embark on national reconciliation.

JEROEN COOREMAN (Belgium), associating himself with the European Union, said the African Union and subregional organizations play a crucial role in maintaining peace and security on the African continent, while also spearheading preventive diplomacy and helping to guide political processes. As the United Nations cannot address all of the globe’s conflicts alone, partnership is not a choice, it is a necessity, he emphasized. Regarding the specific modalities of funding African Union-led peace operations, he welcomed the Trust Fund established for that purpose. He also warned that it is out of the question to impose more or less stringent criteria on those missions than on missions of the United Nations. Indeed, equally rigorous standards are needed, particularly in such areas as civilian protection and human rights protection. Noting that African Union-led missions must be able to deploy rapidly, he said the Security Council is not the ideal forum to discuss funding modalities. Any agreement reached on that issue must be fully in line with the broader budgetary agreements reached by United Nations Member States.

BERNADITO CLEOPAS AUZA, Permanent Observer of the Holy See, declared: It is through the presence of the immediately recognizable Blue Helmets that the United Nations is most visible around the globe. In today’s increasingly fragmented world, peacekeeping operations provide a concrete opportunity for the international community to collaborate through diplomatic activities, financial contributions, expertise, troops and personnel. However, staff serving under the United Nations flag have literally built bridges only to see them destroyed by the enemies of peace, including armed groups and terrorists. In Africa, such organizations are often manipulated by political machinations from within or outside national borders with the aim of causing chaos. While many peacekeeping resources are devoted to the continent, the overall cost of peacekeeping represents only a miniscule portion of the world’s military spending. The international community should be prepared to invest more in such work, which must go hand in hand with diplomacy, prevention and sustainable development.

ROBERT MARDINI International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), said the Red Cross operates in many of the same contexts as the United Nations and African-led peacekeeping missions in Africa. Underscoring the need to ensure that those missions are clear about which legal framework governs their operations, he welcomed steps taken by the African Union to foster greater respect for international humanitarian law and human rights law. The ICRC has long assisted African States to integrate international standards into their national laws and is currently supporting the African Union in enhancing its compliance framework. In addition, each year the bloc and the ICRC co-organize a roundtable discussion of challenges and best practices in peacekeeping operations, addressing international humanitarian law and the protection of civilians. Further underlining the ICRC’s ability to provide training support, he said such training modules must be comprehensive, tailored to a particular mandate and relevant to the operational needs on the ground. Last year, the ICRC conducted training sessions on legal standards and humanitarian priorities for more than 25,000 peacekeepers including 16,000 from African States.

JORGE SKINNER-KLEA� ARENALES (Guatemala), condemning the attacks against the personnel of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), said that keeping peace is the most noble task of the Organization. Underscoring that the African Union’s peace support operations have strengthened the capacity of the United Nations, he observed that the partnership could enhance every aspect, from planning and assessment to joint presentation of reports. Chapter VIII of the Charter recognizes the importance of such cooperation in peace and security operations, he pointed out, adding that peacekeeping must take into account the priorities of the host country.

SAMUEL MONCADA (Venezuela), speaking for the Non-Aligned Movement, said that peacekeeping operations must be conducted in strict compliance with the principles of the Charter, including non-interference in the internal affairs of the States. Emphasizing the importance of dealing with the root causes of conflicts, he added that in order to ensure the success of peacekeeping operations, it is important to equip them with political support, human resources, financial and logistical resources, clear mandates and exit strategies.

African solutions for African problems is the principled position of the Movement, he said, welcoming the United Nations’ determination to strengthen its relationship with regional and subregional organizations. The security of peacekeeping personnel continues to be a matter of grave concern, and all possible measures must be taken to ensure justice and hold the perpetrators of such attacks accountable. Paying tribute to the work of peacekeepers, men and women who do their work in the context of armed conflict and adverse conditions, he expressed sincere gratitude to all of them, especially to those who lost their lives in the field defending the flag of the United Nations.

DIAN TRIANSYAH DJANI (Indonesia) said that since the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung more than six decades ago, Indonesia and African States worked together to achieve equality between all nations and to spur decolonization. Under the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership on politics, economy and socio-culture – initiated in 2005 and reinvigorated in 2015 numerous multi-faceted support projects are taking place. His country also engages in South-South and triangular programs and contributes nearly 1,400 troops and police to eight United Nations peacekeeping missions in Africa. Those troops will be soon joined by an additional 1,000 peacekeepers being deployed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. He welcomed the intention of the United Nations Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council to formulate common positions and recommendations to address peace and security in the region. In this regard, he highlighted the need for financial support and the importance of innovatively using the Action for Peacekeeping Declaration to bolster support for such missions in Africa.

YARON WAX (Israel) said peacekeeping operations in Africa today are increasingly being targeted by armed groups whose attacks are steadily advancing in both complexity and intent. Strengthening those missions requires enhancement to peacekeepers’ safety and security, as well as to accelerated development and support for political processes and humanitarian assistance. Calling on States to adjust their mindsets to match the realities on the ground, he stressed: We must recognize that wearing a blue helmet no longer guarantees protection. All 61 peacekeeper fatalities in 2017 happened on the African continent. Reiterating Israel’s support for stronger peacekeeping operations there, as well as protection of personnel, he said his country has expanded its partnership to provide trainings and improve camp security, among other things. Citing encouraging recent developments in the Horn of Africa which demonstrate how peace and stability can be achieved he said African States’ leading roles must be respected. In addition, there can be zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeepers.

ROBERT KAYINAMURA (Rwanda), associating himself with the African Union, recalled that the Union is undergoing institutional reforms aimed at ensuring effectiveness of peace and security operations. Approximately 75 per cent of all peacekeeping personnel are African troops and 60 per cent of Security Council resolutions address issues on the continent. Africa is a central part of the business of the Security Council, he said, further emphasizing the importance of African Union involvement in that context. That partnership must capitalize on regional peace frameworks and mobilize further support for regionally-led peace processes. Close coordination on strategic conflict assessment, planning, reporting and burden sharing are essential, he said, expressing support for the Joint United Nations-African Union Framework for Enhanced Partnership in Peace. Welcoming the launch of the African Union Peace Fund and the proposed draft resolution on stable financing of African Union peace operations, she said the latter will enable the Security Council to consider the African Union-led peace operations from the United Nations assessed contributions.

COLLEN VIXEN KELAPILE (Botswana), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that despite notable progress, African States are still mired in festering and active interstate conflicts, some with delicate cross-border dimensions. The continent finds itself facing the double jeopardy of simultaneously tackling conflict prevention and the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In order to achieve genuine and sustainable peace, the primacy of local context and underlying regional dynamics must be fully taken into account, he stressed, also noting that the peace dividends being reaped in Somalia today are the result of the General Assembly’s bold decision to exceptionally authorize a United Nations-funded support package for the African Union Mission in Somalia.

OMAR HILALE (Morocco), welcoming the strengthened partnership between the United Nations and the African Union, said that approximately 80 per cent of personnel deployed in the Organization’s peacekeeping operations are deployed on the African continent. Enhanced cooperation is therefore a necessity, he stressed, urging Council members to take into consideration each organization’s human and financial resources. Moroccan troops have been deployed throughout Africa over the years and are currently active in MINUSCA and MONUSCO. Because many African countries have significant peacekeeping expertise relevant to the continent, capacity building and training might be more effective if it was provided by other African States. Welcoming efforts to integrate continuous improvements in such criteria as peacekeeper training, equipment and reimbursement, he said financing for peacekeeping on the continent should be undertaken through the United Nations regular budget’s assessed contributions, whether the missions are led by the Organization or by the African Union.

DANIELA DOINA JINGA (Romania) said that since 1991, when the first Romanian military peacekeepers were deployed in the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM), more than 12,500 Romanian military, police and close protection personnel served under the blue flag around the world. For the second year, her country is supporting the activity of the Office of the Special Coordinator on improving the United Nations response to sexual exploitation and abuse, with the provision of a military expert on military law. Romania is one of only two countries that have made available the services of qualified military personnel to assist the Office of the Special Coordinator. She also welcomed Security Council resolutions 2320 (2016) and 2378 (2017), which are the cornerstone for solid and sustainable peacekeeping cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union.

RICHARD ARBEITER (Canada) said strengthening peace operations in Africa is more than just a question of resources, will and capabilities. Rather, it is about combining efforts to innovate and maximize the international community’s impact. Enabling collective action by African States through the United Nations, African Union or other regional African organizations is a practical step. However, there is also a need to find more predictable, flexible and sustainable financing mechanisms. Stressing that all Member States must pull their weight, he said Canada has committed new resources to United Nations peacekeeping, including a helicopter task force to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). It is also working to deploy a tactical airlift detachment to the United Nations Regional Service Centre in Uganda which will provide critical logistics support to African missions.

FRANCIS MUSTAPHA KAI-KAI (Sierra Leone) noted that the continent’s work to maintain regional peace and security is fraught with challenges, including a lack of sustainable, adequate and predictable financing. Addressing such challenges will require effective political strategies that incorporate the good offices functions of respected regional leaders, as well as the engagement of all parties in the quest for inclusive solutions. Welcoming the signing of the Joint African Union-United Nations Framework, he underlined the importance of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations. More attention must be paid to initiatives emanating from the African Union and mandated by the Security Council. That partnership should also cascade down to Africa’s subregional organizations and economic communities, whose contribution to ensuring peace and security on the continent cannot be overemphasized. Meanwhile, the funding of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects � including peacebuilding and State-building efforts � requires new solutions to overcome existing constraints. He voiced his support for a Council resolution establishing a United Nations assessed contribution mechanism to finance Council-mandated peace support missions operated by the African Union.

MAGDI AHMED MOFADAL ELNOUR (Sudan), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, reaffirmed the importance of African-led peacekeeping operations, he highlighted UNAMID as a success story. Recalling the recommendations of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations, he stressed the importance of regional and subregional perspectives when resolving conflicts in local contexts. It is vital to strengthen the capacity of African countries in peacekeeping in different dimensions, ranging from military to civilian personnel, to achieve the goal of silencing the guns on the continent by 2020.

SAADA DAHER HASSAN (Djibouti) noted the achievement of multiple peacekeeping milestones this year, including the approval of the Peace and Security Architecture Reform and the implementation of the action plan to enhance safety of peacekeepers. She also welcomed the Secretary-General’s reforms initiatives aimed at ensuring more effective peacekeeping. More than half of peacekeeping personnel come from African Member States, she said, adding that citizens of her country are serving in several operations, thereby helping to build peace and stability on the continent. She called for joint mandate planning processes and more consultations between the United Nations and the African Union and subregional organizations.

HAM SANG WOOK (Republic of Korea) underscored the need for strategic partnerships, along with partners that have the expertise to address peace and security challenges in Africa. The United Nations, which has a brand like no other, is best placed to convene and coordinate these different actors, he stressed. Pointing out that the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) took the lead in resolving the political crises in the Gambia in 2016 and then deployed forces there to maintain stability, he said the advantage of such subregional organizations has been especially clear in the areas of peace enforcement and counter-terrorism operations. The United Nations must work more closely with regional actors by providing then with the necessary support in line with Chapter VIII of the Charter. More cooperation is also needed to facilitate sustainable political solutions, convene joint meetings and make more effective joint decisions. Welcoming the upcoming submission of a joint United Nations-African Union roadmap aimed at addressing concerns related to accountability and compliance, he expressed hope that those initiatives � as well as the draft resolution on financing African Union-led peace operations to be tabled next month � will help move the discussion forward.

ABDOULAYE BARRO (Senegal) said that, as a major troop- and police-contributor, his country welcomes efforts aimed at rendering peacekeeping operations more effective. Calling for permanent solutions to sustainably financing African Union-led peace operations, he said there can be no question about cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union. The continent must be able to take its destiny in its own hands. African countries have demonstrated their willingness to make significant contributions to maintaining peace and stability. Drawing attention to the challenges � as well as opportunities � present in the Sahel region, he pointed to the increasing involvement by Francophone nations in peace operations and their overall deployment in French-speaking areas of Africa. In that context, he voiced support for enhanced multilingualism in peacekeeping, as well as enhanced preventive diplomacy and mediation efforts. Among other things, Senegal established a training centre where peacekeepers receive pre-deployment training in line with United Nations standards, including on sexual exploitation and abuse prevention, he said.

FRANCISCO DUARTE LOPES (Portugal) said Portuguese forces are presently deployed in various peace operations across the African continent, including in MINUSCA. However, the scope and complexity of peacekeeping today are not yet matched by the resources needed to address them. Underlining the important role of preventive diplomacy and mediation, he said Portugal is a signatory of the Declaration on Shared Commitments and supports enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. Those partnerships could be improved by ensuring flexible, predictable financing as well as ensuring that African Union-led forces receive appropriate human rights and code of conduct training. His country supports peace operations in Africa through the European Union’s African Peace Facility, he said, reiterating his county’s offer to contribute to training other nations’ troops, including those in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

SABRI BOUKADOUM (Algeria), noting that peacekeeping has become the most visible part of the United Nations activities, said it was bold diplomacy that brought it forth. However, it is also a double-edged sword; any failure to deliver has a detrimental impact on the Organization’s credibility. It is on African soil that peacekeepers are facing the most complex challenges, often working in dangerous environments where there is no peace to keep. Peacekeeping cannot succeed without a viable political process, even in counterterrorism contexts. Calling on the international community to step up its commitments to post-conflict situations, he said the African Union has shown its strength, especially in situations where offensive operations are needed and when the Council is unable to mobilize the requisite political consensus required for action. When African States call on the Council to do more, the call should be understood in the context of the United Nations Charter, he stressed.

LAZARUS OMBAI AMAYO (Kenya) said that most of the challenges in African peace and security can be addressed by deepening strategic cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations. Welcoming advances in the partnership, he said that the two organizations should engender a greater degree of coherence and coordination in their efforts. While respecting the basic principles of peacekeeping, it is also important to align to new realities, such as the threats that face AMISOM and the G-5 Sahel initiative where peacekeepers are a direct target. Similarly, those missions rely on voluntary sources that are rarely predictable, indicating that assessed contributions are the most viable option to ensure sustainability. As each mission presents unique challenges, pre-deployment training needs to be tailored to suit each mission environment and threats. For that reason, his country has offered the services of its International Peace Support Training Centre with hopes of partnering with the United Nations and other stakeholders to advance peacekeeper training, he said.

SAMSON SUNDAY ITEGBOJE (Nigeria) emphasized that because the root causes of conflict on the African continent are multifaceted a comprehensive approach is required to address them. Above all, the response must be based on the quest for collective security with the international community acting in concert. Outlining lessons learned by his country during its engagement in Sierra Leone and Liberia, he said the demands placed on the African Union far outweigh its resources and capacity to effectively respond. Allowing the regional bloc’s missions to fail would lead to reluctance among potential partners to contribute to peacekeeping. The Brahimi report, the Independent High-level Panel on Peacekeeping Operations and other reviews have all found that financing options are not difficult to identify. The Council should endorse a financing option that guarantees the predictability, sustainability and flexibility of funding for African Union peacekeeping operations mandated by the United Nations. He also spotlighted the critical role of women in conflict resolution and the building of stable societies, welcoming their increased participation in peacekeeping operations.

RAZIYE BILGE KOCYIGIT GRBA (Turkey) said that peacekeeping is constantly evolving and being tailored to meet new challenges. The diversity of such challenges requires the contribution of a myriad of actors, including regional and sub-regional organizations, civil society and the private sector. Because various regional organizations such as the African Union have become established actors in peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts, the United Nations should be able to support and make use of the capabilities of these blocs. The ultimate objective for missions on the continent is to generate success stories of African ownership and responsiveness. Somalia is a textbook example of the partnership and collaboration of the United Nations, African Union and European Union. She noted her appreciation for the noble endeavour of AMISOM in the pursuit of bringing peace and security to that country. Turkey is maintaining its support to Somalia in numerous fields, including capacity-building for Somali institutions in terms of military and policing, she said.

MASUD BIN MOMEN (Bangladesh), associating himself with the Non-Aligned Movement, said that political peace processes spearheaded by the African regional and sub-regional organizations must be duly factored into the mandate design and delivery of the relevant United Nations peacekeeping operations. Calling for due consideration to the Secretary-General’s constructive suggestions for United Nations-African Union joint action and funding, he added that the traditional structures of peacekeeping operations need to be revisited through a multi-dimensional and multi-stakeholder approach. Bangladesh values its association with the African continent, he said, adding that while it would be self-defeating to engage United Nations peacekeepers in direct counter-terrorism operations, in certain African theatres, the mission could support the concerned State in strengthening its counterterrorism strategies.

Source: United Nations

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